It's always the Russians which start this stuff off isn't it? It's like America doesn't like the Russians or something.
Well Russia was pretty much the enemy of the civilized world during The Cold War, tried to reform for a bit, and then pretty much went back to it's old ways with the police arresting punk bands like Pussy Riot and things like that. Not to mention them cutting off the gas to the EU during/after the entire "Georgia" incident and basically threatening to nuke Poland for playing host to a US missle interception base.
When it comes to Russia and China, it's an increasingly fair question to ask why we should like them.
There is also a degree of precedent in that Russia is very big on trying to develop cutting edge technology on the cheap and without any kind of failsafes or safety protocols. The results generally being slapshod at best, though in many cases generally effective. One of the things that lead to the USSR's collapse was how in "Desert Storm" Russian hardware and training was bsing used by Iraq, where the allies had American hardware. It was kind of USA vs. USSR fought vicariously, in the end it turned out Russia was producing comparitive garbage and lying about their capabilities, where the USA was greatly understating ours if anything. While not single handedly responsible for the collapse of the USSR it was a huge blow, as people who were going with nothing, so they could be the best and one day rule the world, found out it was all pretty much a lie.
The point being that doing experiments in a space lab without safety protocols, and then just abandoning it when something went wrong instead of even trying to clean it up, and not telling anyone, is a quintessentially Russian move. You could level these accusations at any country if you wanted to be pessimistic, but they have been unusually bad in these respects. With the USA, Europe, etc.. one of our big failings has always been an inabillity to keep our mouthes shut and compartmentalize information when it comes to crap like this.
Truthfully a lot of the same things could be pointed at China, but China despite lack of general quality, does not yet have a space program. Not to mention that Hollywood is generally reluctant to mess with China in movies (going so far as to change "Red Dawn" to the point of stupidity) due to the potential money to be made from sales to a Chinese audience.
I'll also go so far as to say that the USA does pick on itself with the whole "science gone wrong" crap, including evil corperations, and bizzare CIA cover ups, but truthfully our general "style" of messing up wouldn't match the needs for this movie. We wouldn't have likely just left the space station in orbit and tried to pretend it didn't happen.
Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the movie requires this to be an unknown threat. If the satellite's cargo is infesting the USA, by definition for it to be a "surprise threat" our goverment would have to have no idea what it is, or that there was a satellite in orbit with this kind of infestation. IF the US knew about it, then the military would know in short order, and things would progress a bit differant than the whole monster movie angle. The station being positioned by a foreign power is the best way to justify this, and again, the only ones who could have been conducting this kind of research even hypothetically would be Russia, and the rest of their MO just sort of falls in line for it.
To be honest, if China ever does seriously get it's space program off the ground (more so than we see now) you might see them filling the same role, for the same reasons, assuming of course Hollywood decides to not concern themselves with movie releases inside their territory.