OK, not that R2 unit, but a robot that can be used with the help of medical personnel on Earth to be a surrogate physician in space.
NASA is putting its $2.5 million robot through additional training for the International Space Station, and one of those duties would be as an emergency medical physician.
Robonaut 2 (or R2) is no where near the level of The Doctor, the emergency medical hologram of Star Trek Voyager, but it is making strides that would allow medical personnel on Earth to utilize its capabilities to help sick or injured astronauts.
NASA has created a video showing the robotic physician in action, such as doing an ultrasound, and administering an injection with a syringe. The tests used an R2 unit based on Earth, but the Robonaut already has a twin aboard the ISS.
Check out the video to see how far robotics has come.